Infectious Diseases, Opioids and Injection Drug Use in Persons Who Inject Drugs

Bone oedema of the adjacent vertebral body endplates also appears as high T2/STIR signal and low T1 signal. Following gadolinium administration, there is diffuse enhancement of the intervertebral disc in addition to endplate and paravertebral soft tissue enhancement. Complications such as development of an epidural or paravertebral soft tissue abscess can also be readily identified on MRI.

  • These states could develop into sepsis and septic emboli (bacteria and pus-filled embolisms), both of which can be life-threatening conditions.
  • Hepatitis C can either be chronic but asymptomatic , or chronic-active, which means disease will develop over a long period of time–several years or perhaps even decades.
  • Among patients for whom there was a concern about oral antibiotic adherence, potential adverse effects, or new symptoms, same-day ID telemedicine visits were arranged.
  • Themes were identified on the basis of topic and recurrent patterns highlighted throughout analysis of multiple participants’ accounts.

When the bacteria in this condition spreads, the skin becomes black as gangrene begins to develop. If an infection is allowed to continue spreading, it may affect vital organs and can result in death. Care cascade for patients with opioid use disorder and serious injection related infections. Hartnett KP, Jackson KA, Felsen C, Mcdonald R, Bardossy AC, Gokhale RH, et al. Morbidity and mortality weekly report bacterial and fungal infections in persons who inject drugs-western New York, 2017.

Viruses related to IV drug use

While the iv drug use of a fungal infection may vary depending on the type of fungi that caused the infection, common symptoms include a fever and chills. An infected blood clot causes septic thrombophlebitis in the vein, which can be extremely dangerous and even life-threatening. Common symptoms from septic thrombophlebitis include tenderness and inflammation of the skin overlying the vein. Misusing any medication or drug is dangerous and can result in an overdose. However, one of the most severe health dangers of IV drug use is that it significantly increases the risk of overdosing and death.

  • Septic arthritis is a painful infection that can cause extreme discomfort and limit the mobility of the infected joint and surrounding area.
  • This infection, which is also commonly known as flesh-eating disease, can erupt suddenly and with little warning.
  • People who inject IV drugs are at risk for many illnesses, the most common being hepatitis and HIV.
  • A potential overdose needs to be addressed and treated immediately by a medical professional.
  • On average, people who inject drugs are over34 times more likelyto develop venous or leg ulcers than those who have never injected before.

Our findings may be less applicable in areas where methamphetamine is the predominant drug used, as treatment options for stimulant use disorder are limited. Among patients for whom there was a concern about oral antibiotic adherence, potential adverse effects, or new symptoms, same-day ID telemedicine visits were arranged. The goal of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of PWID with SIRI who engaged in PDD on oral antibiotics and compare them with those who remained in the hospital to complete a 6-week course of IV antibiotics. CDC’s infectious disease programs work to implement evidence-based prevention programs in school and community settings, and to stop the spread of infectious diseases like hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and HIV among people who inject drugs. A deadly consequence of the opioid crisis is increased incidence of blood-borne infections, including viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus , and bacterial and fungal infections. These infections are primarily spread through using and sharing contaminated injection drug equipment, unsanitary conditions and low vaccination rates among at-risk populations.

Demographics of patients hospitalized for injection drug use-related serious bacterial infections

Complex or loculated abscesses may be difficult to drain percutaneously due to highly viscous contents or difficulty reliably accessing and draining each individual compartment . If imaging-guided percutaneous drainage is not possible, surgical incision and drainage is usually required for abscesses larger than 3 cm . Intravenous drug use can introduce numerous toxins and pathogens into a person’s veins and body at large, which pave the way for infection. Staphyloccus aureus, or MRSA as it’s better known to most of us, is the bacteria most frequently responsible for IV drug infections. People who inject drugs are a group who may have physical and/or mental health issues as well as social vulnerabilities; all putting them at risk of a wide range of infections with significant morbidity and mortality.

What are the early warning signs of sepsis?

  • confusion or disorientation,
  • shortness of breath,
  • high heart rate,
  • fever, or shivering, or feeling very cold,
  • extreme pain or discomfort, and.
  • clammy or sweaty skin.