Wine web 2.0: digital communication and tourist netnography. Opportunities for new entrepreneurship

Purpose of the paper: The paper aims to examine online communication of wine tourism destinations and their users in order to identify strategic approaches potentially suitable for the development of:

  1. new web communication formats;
  2. innovative entrepreneurial formulae that meet the expectations of increasingly demanding and expert customers.

Methodology: These aims are pursued by means of various methods:

  • official wine tourism destination websites were investigated with the use of the text mining technique;
  • wine tourists online discussions were analysed with the use of text mining and the results were netnographically investigated.

Findings: The analysis enables the search for information, which aims to: a) identify the most frequently used keyword and thematic messages by official wine tourism destination websites; b) profile wine tourists who speak of wine tourism destinations under study.

Research limitation: The two main limitations of the study are: (i) the analysis has been conducted only on the wine destination websites, which are less interactive than social networks; and (ii) the netnographic approach used is of the observational kind and thus doesnt provide any interaction with wine tourists themselves.

Research and managerial implications: In managerial terms, the results of the analysis of user-generated content can be used to (re)direct communicational strategies and develop a more innovative and personalised tourist offer.

Originality/value of paper: The originality of the research lies in the application of research methods that enable interesting research hypotheses, although they are still infrequently used in tourism marketing studies.

Riferimenti bibliografici

AAKER D.A. (1996), Measuring brand equity across products and markets, California Management Review, vol. 38, n. 3, pp. 102-120.

ANHOLT S. (2007), Competitive Identity: the new brand management for nations, cities and region, Journal of Brand Management, vol. 14, n. 6, pp. 474-475.

BEGALLI D., CODURRI S., GAETA D. (2009), Wine and web marketing strategies. The case study of Italian speciality wineries, British Food Journal, vol. 111, n. 6, pp. 598-619.

BUHALIS D., WAGNER R. (2013), E-destinations: global best practice in tourism technologies and application, in Cantoni L., Xiang Z. (eds), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, Springer Verlag, Austria, pp. 119-130.

CHARTERS S., ALI-KNIGHT J. (2002), Who is the wine tourist?, Tourism Management, vol. 23, n. 3, pp. 311-319.

CHIARVESIO M., DI MARIA E. (2009), Innovazione, internazionalizzazione e ICT: limpresa distrettuale italiana tra globale e locale, in Pepe C., Zucchella A., Linternazionalizzazione delle imprese italiane. Competitivit e attrattivit del made in Italy, Il Mulino, Bologna.

CHIOU W., LIN C., PERNG C. (2010), A strategic framework for website evaluation based on a review of the literature from 1995-2006, Information and Management, vol. 47, n. 5, pp. 282-290.

COSTANTINIDES E., FOUNTAIN S.J. (2008), Web 2.0: conceptual foundations and marketing issue, Journal of direct, data and digital marketing practice, vol. 9, n. 3, pp. 231-244.

COVA B., PACE S. (2007), Branding tribale su Internet: myNutella The Community, Micro&Macro Marketing, vol. XVI, n. 1, pp. 165-182.

COX J., DALE B.G. (2002), Key quality factors in Web site design and use: an examination, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, vol. 19, n. 7, pp. 862-888.

CRESCIMANNO M., GALATI A. (2014), Competitiveness of Italian wines in the international market, Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 20, n. 1, pp. 12-22.

CRESCIMANNO M., GALATI A., SIGGIA D., TINERVIA S. (2015), Web-sites quality and business performance: an empirical investigation in the Sicilian wineries, in Vrontis D., Sakka G., Amirkhanpour M. (Eds), Management Innovation and Entrepreneurship. A Global Perspective, Cambridge Scholar Publishing, Cambridge.

DALLI D., CORCIOLANI M. (2007), Consumption between market and community. Evidence from the Bookcrossing case, in Collesei U., Andreani J.C (eds.), Proceedings of the VI International Marketing Trends Conference, Paris, January 26th-27th.

DE VALCK K., VAN BRUGGEN G.H., WIERENGA B. (2009), Virtual communities: a marketing perspective, Decision Support System, vol. 47, n. 3, pp. 185-203.

DENEGRI-KNOTT J., ZWICK D., SCHRDER J.E. (2006), Mapping consumer power: an in-tegrative framework for marketing and consumer research, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 40, n. 9-10, pp. 950-971.

DWIVEDI M., YADAV A., VENKATESH U. (2012), Use of social media by national tourism organizations: a preliminary analysis, Information Technology and Tourism, vol. 13, n. 2, pp. 93-103.

FAIT M., SCORRANO P., TRIO O. (2014), La misurazione delle performance della social web communication nelle aggregazioni agroalimentari, Conference proceedings of 13th International Marketing Trends Conference, Venice, January 24th-25th.

FOTIS J., BUHALIS D., ROSSIDES N. (2011), Social media impact on holiday travel planning: the case of the Russian and the FSU markets, International Journal of Online Marketing, vol. 1, n. 4, pp. 1-19.

FRANCH M. (2010), Marketing delle destinazioni turistiche, McGraw-Hill, Milano.

FULLER J., MATZLER K., HOPPE M. (2008), Brand Community Members as a Source of Innovation, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 25, n. 6, pp. 608-623.

GETZ D., BROWN G. (2006), Critical success factors for wine tourism regions: a demand analysis, Tourism Management, vol. 27, n. 1, pp. 146-158.

GUTTENTAG D. (2010), Virtual reality: applications and implication for tourism, Tourism Management, vol. 31, n. 5, pp. 637-651.

HALL C.M., MACIONIS N. (1998), Wine tourism in Australia and New Zealand, in Butler R.W., Hall C.M., Jenkins J.M. (eds.), Tourism and recreation in rural areas, John Wiley and Sons, Sidney, pp. 267-298.

HALL C.M., MITCHELL R. (2002), The tourist terroir of New Zealand wine: The importance of region in the wine tourism experience, in Montanari A., Food and environment: Geographies of taste, Societ Geografica Italiana, Roma.

HALL C.M., SHARPLES L., CAMBOURNE B., MACIONIS N. (eds.), (2000), Wine tourism around the world: Development, management and markets, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

HAYS S., PAGE S.J, BUHALIS D. (2012), Social media as a destination marketing tool: its use by national tourism organisations, Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 16, n. 3, pp. 211-239.

HERNNDEZ B., JIMNEZ J., MARTN M.J. (2009), Key website factors in e-business strategy, International Journal of Information Management, vol. 29, n. 5, pp. 362-371.

HOLM O. (2006), Integrated marketing communication: from tactics to strategy, Corporate Communications, vol. 11, n. 1, pp. 23-33.

HOWE N., STRAUSS W. (2007), The Next 20 Years: How Customer and Workforce At-titudes Will Evolve, Harvard Business Review, July-August, pp. 41-52.

HUANG J., HSU C.H.C. (2010), The impact of customer-to-customer interaction on cruise experience and vacation satisfaction, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 49, n. 1, pp. 79-92.

ISMAIL A.R. (2010), Investigating British customers Experience to Maximize Brand Loyalty Within the Context of Tourism in Egypt: Netnography & Structural Modelling Approach, Doctor of Philosophy in Marketing, Brunel University.

KIETZMANN J.H., HERMKENS K., McCARTHY I.P., SILVESTRE B.S. (2011), Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media, Business Horizons, vol. 54, n. 3, pp. 241-251.

KIM H., NIEHM L.S. (2009), The impact of Website Quality on Information Quality, Value, and Loyalty Intentions in Apparel Retailing, Journal of Interactive Marketing, vol. 23, n. 3, pp. 221-233.

KIN-NAM L., KAM-HON L., HO Y. (2005), Text mining for the hotel industry, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, vol. 46, n. 3, p. 344.

KOSLOWSKY S. (2010), Text mining in marketing, Target Marketing, vol. 33, n. 9, p. 30.

KOTLER P., BOWEN J.T., MAKENS J.C. (2010), Marketing for hospitality and tourism, Pearson, Boston.

KOZINETS R.V. (2002), The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 39 (February), pp. 61-72.

KOZINETS R.V. (2010), Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online, Sage, London.

KUJALA S. (2003), User involvement: a review of the benefits and challenges, Behaviour and Information Technology, vol. 2, n. 1, pp. 1-16.

KUMAR V., CHATTARAMAN V., NEGHINA C., SKIERA B., AKSOY L. (2013), Data driven services marketing in a connected world, Journal of Service Management, vol. 24, n. 3, pp. 330-352.

LAW R., QI S., BUHALIS D. (2010), Progress in tourism management: A review of website evaluation in tourism research, Tourism Management, vol. 31, n. 3, pp. 297-313.

LEE Y., KOZAR K.A. (2012), Understanding of website usability: Specifying and measuring constructs and their relationships, Decision Support Systems, vol. 52, n. 2, pp. 450-463.

LI C., BERNOFF J. (2008), Groundswell: Winning in a world transformed by social technologies, Harvard Business School Press, New York.

MAIZZA A., SCORRANO P., IAIA L., CAVALLO F. (2013), Web communication e Experiential concept store per i tipici dellagroalimentare, X Annual Conference Proceedings of Societ Italiana di Marketing Smart life: dallinnovazione tecnologica al mercato, 3rd-4th October 2013, Milan.

MATTIACCI A., CECCOTTI F., DE MARTINO V. (2006), Il vino come prodotto cognitivo: indagine esplorativa sui comportamenti giovanili, 5th International Congress Marketing Trends, 20th-21st January, Venice

MICH L., FRANCH M., NOVI INVERARDI P.L., MARZANI P. (2004), Supporting decision making in quality projects for Web sites: a framework for tourist destinations, Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, pp. 604-613.

MITCHELL R., HALL C.M., McINTOSH A. (2000), Wine tourism and consumer behaviour, in Hall C.M., Sharples L., Cambourne B., Macionis N. (Eds.), Wine tourism around the world: Development, management and markets, Elsevier Science.

NAEEM B., BILAL M., NAZ U. (2013), Integrated marketing communication: a review paper, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 5, n. 5, pp. 124-133.

NEUHOFER B., BUHALIS D., LADKIN A. (2013), A tipology of technology-enhanced tourism experiences, International Journal of Tourism Research.

NOSI C. (2012), Il vino fra produzione e mercato. Dinamiche, struttura e processi di un settore globale nelle fasce premium, Rubbettino editore, Catanzaro.

OREILLY T. (2005), What Is Web 2.0. Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software,

OANCEA O. (2011), Qualitative research in order to determine a conceptual model of integrated marketing communication to increase the efficiency of communication within the bakery industry in Romania, The Proceedings of International Conference Marketing – from Information to Decision, pp. 337-346.

OZUEM W., HOWELL K.E., LANCASTER G. (2008), Communicating in the new interactive marketspace, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42, n. 9/10, pp. 1059-1083.

PETERS G.L. (1997), American winescapes: The cultural landscapes of Americas wine country, Westview Press, New York.

PLANO C.V.L., BADIEE M. (2010), Research questions in mixed methods research, in Tashakkori A., Teddli C., eds. SAGE, Handbook of mixed methods in social behavioral research, SAGE Publications, Los Angeles, pp. 275-304.

POLILLO R. (2006), Plasmare il web. Road map per siti di qualit, Edizioni Apogeo, Milano.

POLILLO R. (2010), Facile da usare. Una moderna introduzione allingegneria dellusabilit, Edizioni Apogeo, Milano.

PRAHALAD C.K., RAMASWAMY V. (2004), The future of competition. Co-creating unique value with customers, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

PREBENSEN N.K., FOSS L. (2011), Coping and co-creating in tourist experiences, International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 13, n. 1, pp. 54-67.

PURI A. (2007), The Web of insights: the art and practice of webnography, International Journal of Market Research, vol. 49, n. 3, pp. 387-408.

QUINTON S., HARRIDGE-MARCH S. (2010), Relationships in online communities: the potential for marketers, Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 4, n. 1, pp. 59-73.

RANGANATHAN C., GANAPATHY S. (2002), Key dimensions of business-to-consumer web sites, Information and Management, vol. 39, n. 6, pp. 457-465.

RITZER G., JURGENSON N. (2010), Production, Consumption, Prosumption. The Nature of Capitalism in the Age of the Digital Prosumer, Journal of Consumer Culture, vol. 10, n. 1, pp. 13-36.

RIVA G. (2010), I social network, Il Mulino, Bologna.

ROSATO P., SCORRANO P. (2011), Il marketing 2.0 nelle strategie delle imprese vinicole italiane, in Andreani J. C., Collesei U. (2011), Proceedings of the 10th International Marketing Trends Conference, Paris, January 20th-22nd, pp. 1-30.

SCHIMMENTI E., GALATI A., BORSELLINO V. (2014), The quality of websites and their impact on economic performance: The case of nurseries and gardening companies in the Italian Mezzogiorno regions, International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, vol. 6, n. 19, pp. 72-87.

SCHMALLEGGER D., CARSON D. (2008), Blogs in tourism: changing approaches to information exchange, Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol. 14, n. 2, pp. 99-110.

SCORRANO P. (2013), Communicate global- Consume local. Le produzioni agroalimentari tipiche nel Web, Sinergie, n. 92, pp. 25-48.

SCORRANO P., FAIT M., ROSATO P., IAIA L. (2013), Image analysis e wine tourism destination: la prospettiva dellenoturista, Sinergie, n. 90, pp. 119-139.

SIANO A., VOLLERO A. (2012), Il processo di management della corporate communication: un framework, Sinergie, n. 88, pp. 73-92.

SIGALA M. (2012), Exploiting Web 2.0 for new service development: findings and implications from the Greek tourism industry, International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 14, n. 6, pp. 551-566.

TAPSCOTT D. (2009), Grown up digital. How the net generation is changing your world, McGraw-Hill, New York.

TEDDLIE C., TASHAKKORI A. (2009), Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences, SAGE, Los Angeles.

TELFER D.J. (2001), From a wine tourism village to a regional wine route: An investigation of the competitive advantage of embedded clusters in Niagara, Canada, Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 26, n. 2, pp. 23-33.

TOFFLER A. (1980), The third wave, Pan Books, London.

WATSON G.H. (1995), Il benchmarking come migliorare i processi e la competitivit aziendale adattando e adottando le pratiche delle imprese leader, Franco Angeli, Milano.

WU M., PHILIP L., PEARCE P.L. (2013), Appraising netnography: towards insights about new markets in the digital tourist era, Current Issues in Tourism.

WUNSCH-VINCENT S., VICKERY G. (2007), Partecipative Web: user-created content (

XIANG Z., GRETZEL U. (2010), Role of social media in online travel information search, Tourism Management, vol. 31, n. 2, pp. 179-188.

XUN J., REYNOLDS J. (2010), Applying netnography to market research: the case of the online forum, Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, vol. 18, n. 1, pp. 17-31.

ZWICK D., BONSU S.K., DARMODY A. (2008), Putting Consumers to Work: Co-Creation and New Marketing Govern-mentality, Journal of Consumer Culture, vol. 8, n. 2, pp. 163-196.